The equipment of any building will not be complete unless the installation of security systems (SAT), which controls not only the integrity of engineering systems, but also protects against unauthorized intrusion. Typically, the security system includes the following subsystems: video surveillance, access control, burglar alarm, fire alarm and fire extinguishing system.
Depending on the equipment used, CCTV systems can be analog or digital. At the same time, analog systems are used for the installation of security systems for small objects, and digital security systems are installed to ensure the security of highly responsible or territorially distributed objects.
The access control system (ACS) is designed to permit and restrict the movement of people, objects, vehicles in the premises, buildings and the territory of the protected facility. The ACS is part of the overall security system of the facility and fully automates access control, and can also solve tasks such as time management, employee location, elevator management, etc. When the installation of security systems is performed, the main components of the ACS are installed, namely: readers, installed at the entrance to the controlled room, and actuators (electromechanical locks, turnstiles, etc.). The main components of the access control system are also individual electronic passes that are issued to all registered users of the system.
The security alarm system performs the tasks of timely alerting the security service about the fact of unauthorized penetration or attempts to infiltrate people into the building or its separate premises, while the security system records the place and time of violation of the security line. Information on violations is collected and transmitted to the control panel security sensors, the installation of which is also included in the concept of “installation of security systems.” In this case, the sensors used can be different for their intended purpose (motion sensor, glass break detector, flood sensor) and the principle of operation (for example, IR and microwave sensors). After processing the signal from the security detectors, the receiving and monitoring device generates an alarm signal that initiates the operation of the security alarms and other security system actuators.
The main functions of the fire alarm system are the timely detection of the ignition site and the formation of control signals for fire alarm and automatic fire extinguishing systems. Detectors are used to detect a fire, and the receiving and monitoring equipment performs the processing and recording of information, as well as the supply of control signals to safety equipment. The main objective of any fire-fighting system is saving people’s lives, so the first priority in such systems is the task of early detection of fire and alerting personnel. Thus, for the protection of large open air spaces (atria, theaters, warehouses) and smoke detection in inaccessible areas (elevator shafts, electronic cabinets, air ducts), security systems are increasingly installed using aspiration smoke detection technologies when forced air pumping through flow smoke detectors.
The technical and technological development of security systems has led to the fact that modern buildings are practically not equipped with disparate subsystems, and an integrated security system is being installed that allows to centrally manage all relevant equipment, provides a single platform for the SB of territorially distributed offices of companies and works with a unified database and a single graphical interface for all applications. It is possible to create such a complex both for the installation of new security systems, and for merging the legacy equipment into the system. At the same time, the required set of subsystems is determined taking into account the requirements of the Customer, as well as real and potential threats to the facility.
To implement the integration of security systems, various methods are used, from the simplest ones (integration at the level of dry contacts) to more complex ones (integration at the software level). Here there is a clear pattern: the higher the class of a building, the more complex integrated security systems are, the richer they are in their functional capabilities.
Note that quality installation of security systems implies compliance with the principle of “equal protection”. This principle provides for the construction of such a complex structure, all subsystems of which have approximately the same efficiency. In the expanded version, the following subsystems can be distinguished, forming an integrated security system:
- security alarm;
- fire alarm and fire alarm;
- automatic fire extinguishing system;
- security television;
- access control and access control to premises;
- control of the performance of the service;
- operational communication;
- vehicle number fixing system;
- engineering and technical protection;
- antiterrorist protection system.
Of course, each of these subsystems can work independently, and the installation of these security systems can be performed separately, but integrating them into a single complex will enhance the protective properties of each individual component by working the rest. To reduce the likelihood of personnel mistaken actions due to increased information flow, the means of integrating the security system should provide for the following:
- conducting an objective control of the actions of personnel;
- issuance of warning signals in case of detection of abnormal situations;
- provision of operational information on the situation at the site;
- the performance of security functions and the transmission of messages to the central guard;
- the work of security systems in the offline mode with loss of control;
- registration, processing and archiving of information from all systems included in the complex;
- Monitoring the efficiency of technical facilities included in the security system.
Thus, in the integrated security system, when smoke detectors fire, smoke, fire fighting, engineering and elevator equipment will automatically switch on, and the access control system unlocks the evacuation door locks. Moreover, through the television cameras of the video surveillance system, it is also possible to track the appearance of smoke in the corresponding rooms. Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that by installing integrated, rather than disjointed security systems, we increase the level of information reliability and minimize losses and damage by promptly responding to alarms.